- Transformation of presentation or control methods (e.g., automated restyling, speech to text/speech recognition, text to speech, text to tactile displays-- to meet individual needs)(translation devices can be separate systems that the learner has access to or owns - screen reader, refreshable Braille display, screen magnifier, speech recognition app, etc.)
- Augmentation (adding a scaffold, an additional presentation such as captioning or description, etc. this is usually manual rather than automatic)
- Replacement (offering an alternative that meets the same goal, this can be partially automated)
The most labor intensive in the long run is usually augmentation (e.g. with captions and descriptions of our content). Transformation requires proactive design so that the user interface of the delivery platform and the content are amenable to transformation. Replacement requires a diverse pool of resources, a way to capture the needs of the user and the accessibility features of the resource/content as well as the goals addressed by the content, and then a way to match the two.
To address Transformation and Replacement can be done by following some basic guidelines:
- Make it possible to swap/transform presentation for the same content and structure (e.g., well structured HTML with CSS). This applies to style, layout, and presentation mode. For content the intermediary or base content type should be text as text is machine readable and automatically translatable into a number of formats and is searchable. That does not mean that the final presentation should be text.
- Provide structure and clear structural markup (for navigation, search-ability and ascertaining an overview)
- Provide meaningful labels and associate labels with items/groups labeled.
- Enable logical control with only a keyboard (without a pointing device such as a mouse, joystick, tablet) as most alternative control systems emulate keyboards.
- Provide metadata regarding the accessibility features of a resource.
- Enable users to indicate and enact their personal preferences.