Checklist: Heuristic Principles for Usability 1
A heuristic evaluation is an expert review of a user interface with reference to explicit principles termed "heuristics." During the evaluation, reviewers see how well the website application service fulfills the basic requirements for usability or accessibility.
To conduct an a heuristic evaluation of a website or application, travel through the pages of the site, examining each one while reflecting on each of the listed principles, and recording compliance and violations. The heuristic principles should also be kept in mind during cognitive walkthroughs (see Right column).heuristic principles. Make a record of where you find compliance and where you find violations. Note that a heuristic evaluation may also be done in combination with a cognitive walkthrough.
___ Visibility of system status
The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.
___ Match between system and the real world
The system should speak the user's language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.
___ User control and freedom
Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.
___ Consistency and standards
Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
___ Error prevention
Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
___ Recognition rather than recall
Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.
___ Flexibility and efficiency of use
Accelerators - unseen by the novice user - may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
___ Aesthetic and minimalist design
Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.
___ Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.
___ Help and documentation
Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
1 The above section lists the original Nielsen and Molich heuristics, as refined by Nielsen.
Checklist: Heuristic Principles for Accessibility
The following is an abridged version of the Simple Accessibility Walkthrough Protocol - see this document for Review Protocol. You may want to read the full version to gain a better understanding of how these the principles apply to accessibility.