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Comment: Migrated to Confluence 4.0


Approachability of Museum Staff:

Wiki MarkupVisitors feel that museum staff does not care much about them, and are not approachable for help and advice. \ [3\] This is especially true for people with disabilities. \ [6\]

Interactive Exhibits:

Wiki MarkupMuseum visitors love to be engaged and love interactive exhibits. It is important to engage all the members of the family, even at children's museum where engaging parents is overlooked. Engaging visitors is not so straight forward though; If it requires reading direction, they are notorious for failing to do so, choosing instead to copy the person in front of them. \ [2\]

Desired Experience:

Wiki MarkupVisitors work all day and don't wish to take on a greater cognitive load. \ [5\] They desire "a multifaceted experience involving both physical relaxation and intellectual exploration." \ [1\] Stimulating emotions, and thought, are also important. \ [3\]\[5\] What emerges is a need for personal identification with the stories and with the methods adopted in terms of narrative and interaction. \ [5\]

Museum Prestige:

Wiki MarkupVisitors see museums as very prestigious and believe the content of the museum is very trustworthy. This is great, but it also means that visitors will find it difficult to questions and challenge the museum, and soliciting this kind of feedback and interacting is generally challenging. This is especially true for students and younger museum visitors. \ [3\]\[4\]

Wiki Markup*\[1\] The Information-Seeking Behavior of Museum Visitors* *\
[2\] Examples of Common Mistakes in Museum Design* *\
[3\] Educator and Student Museum Visitors* *\
[4\] Science Museum Visitors* *\
[5\] Non-Visitors: Teenagers* *\
[6\] Accessibility to visitors*

The Information-Seeking Behavior of Museum Visitors


Key contents (directly extracted from the document):

unmigrated- wiki-markup\- From around 1980 onward \ [...\] museums themselves are in transition. They are no longer simply repositories of objects and artifacts stored for presentation, posterity and edification. They are expected to engage with the public and compete with the rest of the entertainment industry for tourist dollars and leisure time while maintaining their learning functions.

- The material created by demographic observations on museum visitors at all times of the week and day by several different studies implies in general that visitors are noticeably older, predominantly female and predominantly white and well-dressed. There were three social arrangements in evidence: couples, groups of women and solitary men. There were also members of school classes usually during weekdays and very few couples with small children.

- Information can be a commodity but museum visitor consumer behavior is stimulated by information in context as presented in exhibitions in the same way advertising promotes a feeling where customers are said to enjoy learning about a product even without an immediate purchase in mind.unmigrated

- wiki-markup\- Zahava Doering, Director of Institutional Studies at the Smithsonian, argued that rather than communicating information, the "most satisfying exhibitions for visitors are those that resonate with their experience and provide new information in ways that confirm and enrich their \ [own\] view of the world."  

- Visitor engagement demands entertainment because the public increasingly views museums as a kind of tourist destination with the accompanying expectations.

- The information encountered turns into a two-way conversation between the curator and the visitor, with the visitor looking to construct meaning from what they see in relation to their background, and the curator looking to influence this interpretation by constructing knowledge through objects, narratives and histories.unmigrated

- wiki-markup\- Stephen Weil \ [... writes\] "Some museums are celebratory, others seek to console. Some try to stimulate a sense of community, others to capture memory. And some simply offer the important refreshment to be found in breaking the grip of everyday routine." \ [...\] Weil emphasizes this by listing some figures concerning attendance at the Smithsonian and his reflections on these numbers is edifying: "Of sixteen thousand visitors interviewed between 1994 and 1996 visitors who had come on their own, not as a part of any organized school or other tour only 14 percent had come by themselves. For the other 86 percent, their museum visits were interwoven with a social experience" . As Deborah Perry, Lisa Roberts, Kris Morrissey, and Louis Silverman have pointed out (Journal of Museum Education, fall 1996), "People often come \ [to museums\] with their families and other social groups, and they often come first and foremost for social reasons. Although visitors say they come to museums to learn things, more often than not the social agenda takes precedence. Quality family time, a date, something to do with out-of-town guests, a place to hang out with friends: these are some of the primary reasons people chose to go to museums.

- Prince conducts several studies on what visitor's want and suggests that museums are able to provide a multifaceted experience involving both physical relaxation and intellectual exploration.unmigrated

- wiki-markup\- No museum visitor studies are better able to get to the dirt on visitor information seeking behavior than those done on science and technology museums \ [...\] The demographics at these museum types shift dramatically as well with "75% of visitors either school children or family and friends accompanied by children...with a maximum of 10% of 'specialists and enthusiasts'unmigrated

- wiki-markup\- Booth validated and identified three different groups of visitors and information needs \ [on science and technology museums\]: The general visitor who requires information on opening hours, prices, the Museum's facilities, what's on, notable exhibits and navigation aids in the Museum; the educational visitor who requires (in addition to the above information for general visitors) more detailed information to help plan visits...and project based information; and finally the specialist visitor who requires (in addition to the information for general visitors) detailed information concerning the Museum's collections and access to its expertise, together with links to other sources of information.

- the quantity of information provided is important. Packages of information which can be read quickly, exhibitions with less than 30 displays and short audio monologues require considerably less investment of time and effort prevent visitor fatigue.

- visitors do not all respond to different interpretive media in the same way. Some visitor groups are more likely to seek out information, particularly the more detailed presentations.... For such visitors learning, understanding and appreciation would seem to be especially important requirements. ...There was also some tendency for older visitors, those with a longer period of education, and those visiting in a group of two adults to make greater use of interpretation. Overall, then, the "effectiveness" of interpretation seems to be the result of an interaction between visitor and interpretive medium, rather than being due solely to the properties of the medium. -unmigrated

- wiki-markup\- Having a website violates some of the motivations for visiting museums. For instance, it is difficult to create true numenous experience or social analog because of the barrier of screen and machine. However, many museums see it as the only way to reach communities of visitors limited by geography, time or ability and answer their specific information needs for a non-immersive but still playful, enlightening and entertaining experience. \
- \ [conclusion\] No matter how you slice and dice the visitor statistics, the idea that permeates the literature and makes the most basic sense is that every visitor's motivations and seeking patterns are still rooted in the experience of being human. In that context museum visitors (those who seek out the collections and experiences presented by objects and environments created by other humans) are as diverse and unique as humanity itself, making their information related behavior reflective and iterative.  

(all sources of information are referenced at the end of the original document).