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ISO/IEC 24751 is intended to facilitate the matching of individual user needs and preferences with educational digital resources that meet those needs and preferences. It is intended to address mismatches between personal needs and preferences caused by any number of circumstances, including requirements related to client devices, environments, language proficiency or abilities. The terms and definitions within ISO/IEC 24751 are not judgmental but functional; the purpose is not to point out flaws in educational digital resources with respect to accessibility and adaptability, but to facilitate the discovery and use of the most appropriate content components for each user.
In ISO/IEC 24751, it is recognized that learners experience a disability when there is a mismatch between the user[[LN1]|#_msocom_1] 's needs (or preferences) and the education or learning experience delivered. Disability is therefore not viewed as a personal trait but as a consequence of the relationship between a user and an interactive environment or resource delivery system. An individual who is blind is not disabled when a lesson is delivered in audio, but an individual who does not have the necessary background knowledge to understand the lesson, or an individual who is listening to the lesson in a noisy environment, is disabled. Given this reframing, an environment is accessible when learner needs can be addressed or matched (through adaptation, re-aggregation or substitution of digital learning resources). Accessibility, in practice, is determined by the flexibility of the environment (with respect to presentation, control methods, structure, access mode, and intellectual supports, for example) and the availability of adequate alternative-but-equivalent content and activities. The needs and preferences of a user may arise from the user's context or environment, the technical requirements of the user's device, the tools available (e.g. assistive technologies such as Braille devices, voice recognition systems, alternative keyboards, etc.), the user's background, or a disability in the traditional medical sense. Accessible ‘systems’ adjust the user interface or configuration of the interactive environment, locate needed resources, matched and adjusted to the needs and preferences of the individual user.
This part of ISO/IEC 24751 provides a common framework for additional parts. These additional parts provide for pairs of complementary sets of information:
a) a description of a user's immediate needs and preferences that affect how they can perceive, understand or interact with interfaces, environments, services and resources, including
1) how these are to be constituted and presented, and
b) a description of the corresponding characteristics of the resource that affect how it can be perceived, understood or interacted with by a user, including
1) all characteristics identified as relevant to the satisfaction of a user’s needs and preferences such as presence of transformable text, alternative sensory modalities, multiple methods of input, available alternatives.
Basic Principles (Sec 4)
4.1 Two types of descriptions
leave as is up to this part:
Figure 1 illustrates how this multi-part standard might be extended. In this Figure Case 1 illustrates the case where the standard is extended using a matched pair of Parts of Types A and B. Case 2 illustrates the case where the standard is extended with a single Part (either A or B) which matches an existing Part.
Figure 1 is not appropriate any more….
4.2 Extending the Standard
This multi-part standard can be extended by adding additional parts. These parts can be of either Type A or Type B. The whole multi-part standard should be internally consistent; parts should not conflict when adding new parts. The parts can also introduce new needs and preferences or resources not covered by existing Parts. As stated above it is anticipated that any additional parts will be created in pairs but this is not mandatory. When necessary this part of ISO/IEC 24751 will be amended accordingly.
This multipart standard has an introductory part (Part 1) that provides the framework for the complete standard. Part 2 and Part 3 will prescribe, respectively, how user’s individual needs and preferences should be described and how resource descriptions will be derived from identified user needs and preferences. Additional pairs of parts will define categories of needs and preferences, and their description and the corresponding descriptions for resources.
4.3 Disability and accessibility
pretty much OK as it is …
4.4 The importance of interoperability and consistent implementation
pretty much OK as it is …
Part 1 (Section 5) of this standard provides an abstract model for metadata for this standard. It is based on the Metadata for Learning Resources standard, ISO JTC1 N:19788 and is fully consistent and interoperable with Dublin Core Metadata (ISO N:???) and the Resource Description Framework (W3C …).
By providing for maximum interoperability of AccessForAll metadata, this standard not only caters for accessibility concerns but also makes it easier for general systems to include AccessForAll metadata.
5 Abstract model
this should match the MLR (ISO/IEC FDIS 19788-1:2010(E), Annex C)
This standard (24751) provides for extension of this standard by the addition of pairs of parts for new categories of user needs and preferences. In addition, following the MLR (19788), it provides for extensibility of the standard by adding refinements of existing elements that can be stored and referenced, in the case of this standard (24751), in a metadata registry.
[[LN1]]Education is concerned with both learners but also teachers and administrators etc. So "user"is more appropriate than 'learner'.